Resilience is not innate in every individual, but rather an individual’s mental ability to develop so that it will always change over time (Erlina Listyanti Widuri:2012).
The ability of resilience for individuals is very important to expand and add experience in solving a problem (Maulidya and Eliana:2013).
Wolin mentions that resilience can be defined as a coping strategy when faced with life challenges or the individual’s capacity to remain healthy (wellness) and continue to improve themselves (self-repair) (Zahrotul Uyun:2012). So do not be surprised if resilience is needed to overcome stress or depression.
Resilience is a term first introduced by Block in the 1950s. Block defines resilience as any ability that involves the ability to adapt when faced with various pressures, both internal and external pressures (E.C. Klohnen:1996).
At the same time, Reivich and Shatte define resilience as an individual’s ability to respond to all adversity or trauma healthily and productively. This ability is crucial in controlling all the pressures of life that befall the individual (Andrew Shatte and Karen Reivich:2002).
On the other hand, Grotberg defines resilience as a human ability to face and overcome unpleasant situations, gain strength, and even achieve self-transformation after experiencing adversity (Edith Henderson Grotberg:1999).
Resilience is an ability that humans need in living their lives. It is because living in the world cannot be separated from adversity.
This adversity challenges the human ability to overcome it, take lessons from it and change themselves through adversity as an intermediary. So, resilience is not only owned by one or a group of people but everyone (Desmita:2008).
Henderson and Milstein argue that the term resilience was adopted instead of the earlier terms researchers used to describe phenomena such as immunity, toughness and strength. It is because becoming resilient involves recognizing feelings of pain, struggle and suffering (Desmita:2014).
According to Emmy E. Werner, the use of the term resilience has been widely used by some behavioural experts to describe three phenomena, namely:
a. The phenomenon of positive development that a person produces when in a high-risk situation.
b. The phenomenon of possible competence emerges under prolonged stress.
c. The phenomenon of coping strategies or trauma healing.
Based on the statement regarding resilience above, it can be concluded that resilience contains the power of strength, toughness and immunity. These three forces are formed from the individual’s self obtained from various experiences of interaction in the surrounding environment.
Resilience benefits individuals who live in high-risk environments, stress and situations that cause stress or trauma.